What does ecology mean in urban design and planning? Where does a 'PermaCity' come into the picture? Indeed, what does Permaculture mean within the context of 'urban design’?
A PermaCity or a designed eco-city with as many permanent cycles as possible would use less natural resources (energy, water, food, etc.) and produce less waste (heat, air pollution, water pollution, sewage, etc.) than a conventional city. The terms "PermaCity" and "eco-city" are -as the term "sustainable city’’- relative. It is difficult to term one city as objectively sustainable and the other as not. But if we see it as a development process going on (that never ends!), or a spiral movement upwards, these terms can indeed be helpful to mark tendencies.